Prostate Cancer is cancer that starts in the prostate gland. The prostate is a small, walnut-sized structure that makes up part of a man reproductive system. It wraps around the urethra, the tube that carries urine out of the body.
Prostate cancer is one of the most common types of cancer in men. Usually prostate cancer grows slowly and is initially confined to the prostate gland, where it may not cause serious harm. However, while some types of prostate cancer grow slowly and may need minimal or even no treatment, other types are aggressive and can spread quickly.
Signs and Symptoms of Prostate Cancer
- Trouble urinating
- Decreased force in the stream of urine
- Blood in semen
- Discomfort in the pelvic area
- Bone pain
- Erectile dysfunction
Signs and tests of Prostate Cancer
A biopsy is needed to tell if you have prostate cancer. A sample of tissue is removed from the prostate and sent to a lab. Your doctor may recommend a prostate biopsy if:
- You have high PSA level
- A rectal exam shows a large prostate or a hard, uneven surface
Complications of Prostate Cancer
- Prostate cancer can spread to nearby organs, such as your bladder, or travel through your bloodstream or lymphatic system to your bones or other organs. Prostate cancer that spreads to the bones can cause pain and broken bones. Once prostate cancer has spread to other areas of the body, it may still respond to treatment and may be controlled, but it's unlikely to be cured.
- Incontinence. Both prostate cancer and its treatment can cause urinary incontinence. Treatment for incontinence depends on the type you have, how severe it is and the likelihood it will improve over time. Treatment options may include medications, catheters and surgery.
- Erectile Dysfunction can result from prostate cancer or its treatment, including surgery, radiation or hormone treatments. Medications, vacuum devices that assist in achieving erection and surgery are available to treat erectile dysfunction.
Treatments of Prostate Cancer
- Hormone therapy (medicines to reduce testosterone levels)
- Surgery (radical prostatectomy)
- Radiation therapy, including brachytherapy and proton therapy
Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy
Radical prostatectomy, or open surgery, is the most commonly performed surgical procedure for treatment of localized prostate cancer. A less invasive option, laparoscopic radical prostatectomy has its basis in traditional open surgery, with less blood loss and better cosmetic results. Laparoscopic instruments improve visualization, enabling precise dissection of the prostate and neurovascular structures. Additionally, laparoscopic suturing techniques allow for a meticulous connection of bladder to urethra following removal of the prostate. This offers the potential for less scarring of the urethra following surgery.
Advantages over open surgery
- Significantly less blood loss
- Better cosmetic result
- Quicker return to normal activity
- Improved visualization of surgical field
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