The prostate is a small organ about the size of a walnut. It lies below the bladder (where urine is stored) and surrounds the urethra (the tube that carries urine from the bladder). The prostate makes a fluid that helps to nourish sperm as part of the semen (ejaculatory fluid). Prostate problems are common in men 50 and older. An urologist is a specialist in diseases of the urinary system, including diagnosing and treating problems of the prostate gland.
What is Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia?
Benign prostatic hyperplasia is nonmalignant (noncancerous) enlargement of the prostate gland, a common occurrence in older men. It is also known as benign prostatic hyperplasia and abbreviated as benign prostatic hyperplasia. benign prostatic hyperplasia generally evolves slowly, and most commonly only causes symptoms after 50.
Signs and symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia
- incomplete bladder emptying
- nocturia, which is the need to urinate two or more times per night
- dribbling at the end of your urinary stream
- incontinence, or leakage of urine
- the need to strain when urinating
- a weak urinary stream
- a sudden urge to urinate
- a slowed or delayed urinary stream
- painful urination
- blood in the urine
Complications of benign prostatic hyperplasia
- Sudden inability to urinate (urinary retention).
- Urinary tract infections (UTIs).
- Bladder stones.
- Bladder damage.
- Kidney damage.
The size of your prostate doesn't necessarily determine the severity of your symptoms. Some men with only slightly enlarged prostates can have significant symptoms, while other men with very enlarged prostates can have only minor urinary symptoms.
Investigation for Prostate
- Urinalysis: Your urine is checked for blood and bacteria.
- Prostatic biopsy: A small amount of prostate tissue is removed and examined for abnormalities.
- Urodynamic test: Your bladder is filled with liquid via a catheter to measure the pressure of your bladder during urination.
- Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test: This blood test checks for cancer of the prostate.
- Post-void residual: This tests the amount of urine left in your bladder after urination.
- Cystoscopy: This is the examination of your urethra and bladder with a tiny lighted scope that is inserted into your urethra
- Intravenous pyelography or urography: This is an X-ray exam or CT scan that is done after a dye is injected into your body. The dye highlights your entire urinary system on the images produced by the X-ray or CT.
- USG of KUB: An ultrasound procedure called transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) may be used to help the doctor see where to take the needle biopsy. Ultrasound is not effective as a diagnostic tool by itself because it cannot differentiate very well between benign inflammations and cancer.
Treatment Procedures of benign prostatic hyperplasia
- Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) can be used for patients for whom benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) affects everyday life. TURP is a commonly used surgical treatment during which a surgeon inserts a resectoscope into the urethra. The resectoscope is a tool that allows a surgeon to see the enlarged prostate gland. The surgeon will place a cutting loop through the resectoscope to remove a small piece of the prostate gland tissue. He then runs an electrical current through the cutting loop and cuts off small pieces of the prostate gland in “chips.” After finishing cutting away chips, the surgeon will flush the urethra and the bladder to remove the tissue that has been extracted from the prostate. Finally, a catheter is inserted to allow the passage of urine out of the body. When the catheter is removed a few weeks later, the body has a wider channel to pass urine out of the body. This wider passage alleviates severe symptoms of BPH.
- HOLEP Procedureare available, some of which can be performed in the doctor’s office with minimal anesthesia. These procedures also involve the removal of obstructing prostate tissue. They are generally associated with less bleeding and quicker recovery than TURP but may not be as effective over the long term in some men.
- Transurethral incision of the Prostate (TUIP)